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Radiometric dating notes

Hence, elements such as potassium, which has an average lifetime of nearly 2 billion years before decaying into argon, are useful for very long time scales, with geological applications such as dating ancient lava flows or Martian rocks.

Carbon, on the other hand, with a shorter mean lifetime of over 8000 years, is more useful for dating human artifacts.

Because radiometric dating fails to satisfy standards of testability and falsifiability, claims based on radiometric dating may fail to qualify under the Daubert standard for court-admissible scientific evidence.

For example, in uranium-lead dating, they use rocks containing zircon (Zr Si O Zircon and baddeleyite incorporate uranium atoms into their crystalline structure as substitutes for zirconium, but strongly reject lead.

Zincon has a very high closure temperature, is very chemically inert, and is resistant to mechanical weathering.

Most are determined experimentally by institutions such as CERN with the Large Hadron Collider.

Decays are very random, but for different elements are observed to conform to statistically averaged different lifetimes.

If you had an ensemble of identical particles, the probability of finding a given one of them still as they were - with no decay - after some time is given by the mathematical expression This governs what is known as the "decay rate." The rate is unique to different particles and so to different atomic elements.

This makes different elements useful for different time scales of dating; an element with too short an average lifetime will have too few particles left to reveal much one way or another of potentially longer time scales.

There is no reason to expect that the rate of decay of a radioactive material is largely constant, As early as of 1673, John Ray, an English naturalist, reckoned with alternative that "im the primitive times and soon after the Creation the earth suffered far more concussions and mutations in its superficial part than afterward". Atoms consist of a heavy central core called the nucleus surrounded by clouds of lightweight particles (electrons), called electron shells.

The energy locked in the nucleus is enormous, but cannot be released easily.

This interpretation unfortunately fails to consider observed energetic interactions, including that of the strong force, which is stronger the electromagnetic force.

It is important that the sample not have had any outside influences.

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